Geography of Papua New Guinea

Coordinates: 6°00′S 147°00′E / 6.000°S 147.000°E / -6.000; 147.000
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Geography of Papua New Guinea
ContinentPacific Ocean
RegionOceania
Coordinates6°00′S 147°00′E / 6.000°S 147.000°E / -6.000; 147.000
AreaRanked 54th
 • Total462,840 km2 (178,700 sq mi)
 • Land98%
 • Water2%
Coastline5,152 km (3,201 mi)
Borders820 kilometres (510 mi)
Highest pointMount Wilhelm
4,509 metres (14,793 ft)
Lowest pointPacific Ocean
0 m
Exclusive economic zone2,402,288 km2 (927,529 sq mi)

The geography of Papua New Guinea describes the eastern half of the island of New Guinea, the islands of New Ireland, New Britain and Bougainville, and smaller nearby islands. Together these make up the nation of Papua New Guinea in tropical Oceania, located in the western edge of the Pacific Ocean.

Papua New Guinea is largely mountainous, and much of it is covered with tropical rainforest. The New Guinea Highlands (or Central Range) run the length of New Guinea, and the highest areas receive snowfall—a rarity in the tropics. Within Papua New Guinea Mount Wilhelm is the highest peak, at 4,509 m (14,793 ft). There are several major rivers, notably the Sepik River, which is 1,126 km (700 mi) long, which winds through lowland swamp plains to the north coast, and the Fly River at 1,050 km (650 mi) in length, which flows through one of the largest swamplands in the world to the south coast. The Highlands consist of a number of smaller ranges running west to east, such as the Finisterre Range which dominates the Huon Peninsula to the north of the city of Lae. At 462,840 km2 (178,700 sq mi) it is the world's third largest island country.[1]

Papua New Guinea has one land border—that which divides the island of New Guinea. Across the 820 km (509 mi) border is the Indonesian provinces of Papua, Highland Papua and South Papua. Papua New Guinea's border with Indonesia is not straight; the border loops slightly to the west along the Fly River in the south-central part of New Guinea, on the western edge of Papua New Guinea's Western Province. There are maritime borders with Australia to the south and Solomon Islands to the southeast.

Physical geography[edit]

New Guinea's topography.

Papua New Guinea has a total area of 462,840 km2 (178,700 sq mi), of which 452,860 km2 (174,850 sq mi) is land and 9,980 km2 (3,850 sq mi) is water. This makes it the 3rd largest island country in the world.[1] Its coastline is 5 152 km long.

The northernmost point is Mussau Island (1°23' S), southernmost point is Sudest Island (11°65' S), easternmost point is Olava, Bougainville (155°57' E) and the westernmost point is either Bovakaka along the Fly River border with Indonesia or Mabudawan (140°54' E).

Papua New Guinea has several volcanoes, as it is situated along the Pacific Ring of Fire. Volcanic eruptions are not rare, and the area is prone to earthquakes and tsunamis because of this. The volcanic disturbance can often cause severe earthquakes, which in turn can also cause tsunamis. Papua New Guinea is also prone to landslides, often caused by deforestation in major forests. The mountainous regions of Papua New Guinea are the areas most susceptible to landslides causing damage.

Offshore islands include the small, forested Admiralty Islands, the largest of which is Manus, to the north of the main island of New Guinea. These have a distinct plant and animal life from the main island but the natural forest has been cleared in places for logging and agriculture.[2]

A recent global remote sensing analysis suggested that there were 1,308 km² of tidal flats in Papua New Guinea, making it the 25th ranked country in terms of tidal flat area.[3]

Rivers[edit]

Climate[edit]

Share of forest area in total land area, top countries (2021). Papua New Guinea has the eighth highest percentage of forest cover in the world.

Tropical; northwest monsoon (December to March), southeast monsoon (May to October); slight seasonal temperature variation. In lower altitudes, the temperature is around 80 °F (27 °C) year round. But higher altitudes are a constant 70 °F (21 °C),[4] and the highest altitudes, especially of Mount Wilhelm and Mount Giluwe, can see snow.[5]

Climate change is expected to alter the temperature and precipitation of the country, with implications for wildlife, ecosystems and agriculture.[6][7]

Climate data[edit]

Climate data for Port Moresby (Köppen Aw)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 36.2
(97.2)
36.1
(97.0)
35.4
(95.7)
34.2
(93.6)
33.8
(92.8)
33.9
(93.0)
33.3
(91.9)
33.8
(92.8)
34.8
(94.6)
35.5
(95.9)
36.3
(97.3)
36.3
(97.3)
36.3
(97.3)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 32.1
(89.8)
31.6
(88.9)
31.4
(88.5)
31.3
(88.3)
31.0
(87.8)
30.3
(86.5)
29.9
(85.8)
30.3
(86.5)
31.0
(87.8)
32.0
(89.6)
32.5
(90.5)
32.4
(90.3)
31.3
(88.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 27.4
(81.3)
27.3
(81.1)
27.1
(80.8)
27.0
(80.6)
26.9
(80.4)
26.1
(79.0)
25.7
(78.3)
26.1
(79.0)
26.5
(79.7)
27.5
(81.5)
27.6
(81.7)
27.8
(82.0)
26.9
(80.4)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 23.7
(74.7)
23.5
(74.3)
23.4
(74.1)
23.5
(74.3)
23.5
(74.3)
23.1
(73.6)
22.4
(72.3)
22.6
(72.7)
23.2
(73.8)
23.5
(74.3)
23.6
(74.5)
23.7
(74.7)
23.3
(73.9)
Record low °C (°F) 20.4
(68.7)
18.8
(65.8)
18.3
(64.9)
16.8
(62.2)
14.5
(58.1)
14.5
(58.1)
10.4
(50.7)
14.8
(58.6)
14.4
(57.9)
16.3
(61.3)
16.0
(60.8)
19.6
(67.3)
10.4
(50.7)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 192.2
(7.57)
140.6
(5.54)
189.8
(7.47)
105.2
(4.14)
56.2
(2.21)
21.6
(0.85)
13.8
(0.54)
12.0
(0.47)
14.4
(0.57)
15.2
(0.60)
40.0
(1.57)
97.8
(3.85)
898.8
(35.38)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 18 16 18 11 9 6 4 4 5 5 6 12 114
Average relative humidity (%) 79 81 81 82 81 79 77 76 76 76 75 77 78
Mean monthly sunshine hours 182 158 184 200 211 200 203 222 213 231 243 216 2,463
Source 1: World Meteorological Organization[8]
Source 2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (extremes, mean temperature, humidity and sun)[9][10]
Climate data for Mount Hagen (Köppen Cfb)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 29
(84)
29
(84)
29
(84)
29
(84)
29
(84)
28
(82)
28
(82)
28
(82)
29
(84)
30
(86)
30
(86)
30
(86)
29
(84)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 12
(54)
13
(55)
13
(55)
12
(54)
12
(54)
11
(52)
11
(52)
11
(52)
11
(52)
12
(54)
12
(54)
12
(54)
12
(54)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 283
(11.1)
299
(11.8)
309
(12.2)
249
(9.8)
180
(7.1)
122
(4.8)
135
(5.3)
163
(6.4)
193
(7.6)
218
(8.6)
208
(8.2)
279
(11.0)
2,638
(103.9)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 24 25 26 26 25 23 23 22 23 24 23 24 288
Mean monthly sunshine hours 155 113 124 120 124 120 124 124 120 155 150 155 1,584
Source: Weather2Travel[11]
Climate data for Lae (Köppen Af)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 31.5
(88.7)
31.5
(88.7)
31.0
(87.8)
30.5
(86.9)
29.8
(85.6)
28.8
(83.8)
28.1
(82.6)
28.0
(82.4)
28.7
(83.7)
29.6
(85.3)
30.5
(86.9)
31.1
(88.0)
29.9
(85.8)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 24.3
(75.7)
24.2
(75.6)
24.2
(75.6)
23.9
(75.0)
23.6
(74.5)
23.0
(73.4)
22.4
(72.3)
22.3
(72.1)
22.6
(72.7)
23.2
(73.8)
23.7
(74.7)
23.9
(75.0)
23.4
(74.1)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 241.6
(9.51)
239.9
(9.44)
281.1
(11.07)
347.4
(13.68)
348.9
(13.74)
502.8
(19.80)
477.9
(18.81)
516.9
(20.35)
360.9
(14.21)
442.4
(17.42)
334.9
(13.19)
338.2
(13.31)
4,432.9
(174.52)
Average rainy days 16 17 18 21 21 21 24 24 22 22 21 19 246
Source: World Meteorological Organisation[12]
Climate data for Wewak (Köppen Af)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 30.6
(87.1)
30.4
(86.7)
30.5
(86.9)
30.9
(87.6)
31.4
(88.5)
31
(88)
30.8
(87.4)
31.1
(88.0)
31.4
(88.5)
31.1
(88.0)
31
(88)
30.7
(87.3)
30.9
(87.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.8
(80.2)
26.7
(80.1)
26.6
(79.9)
26.8
(80.2)
27.1
(80.8)
26.8
(80.2)
26.6
(79.9)
26.6
(79.9)
27
(81)
26.9
(80.4)
26.9
(80.4)
26.8
(80.2)
26.8
(80.3)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 23
(73)
23
(73)
22.8
(73.0)
22.8
(73.0)
22.9
(73.2)
22.6
(72.7)
22.4
(72.3)
22.2
(72.0)
22.6
(72.7)
22.8
(73.0)
22.9
(73.2)
23
(73)
22.8
(72.8)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 143
(5.6)
144
(5.7)
165
(6.5)
181
(7.1)
208
(8.2)
191
(7.5)
166
(6.5)
161
(6.3)
177
(7.0)
216
(8.5)
207
(8.1)
157
(6.2)
2,116
(83.2)
Average rainy days 17 17 19 20 20 18 18 15 17 19 18 17 215
Mean daily sunshine hours 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 5 5 5
Source 1: Climate-Data.org (altitude: 0m)[13]
Source 2: Weather2Travel for rainy days and sunshine[14]
Climate data for Daru (Köppen Am)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 31.7
(89.1)
31.7
(89.1)
31.2
(88.2)
30.6
(87.1)
29.9
(85.8)
28.9
(84.0)
28.2
(82.8)
28.4
(83.1)
29.2
(84.6)
30.6
(87.1)
31.8
(89.2)
32.4
(90.3)
30.4
(86.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 27.5
(81.5)
27.5
(81.5)
27.2
(81.0)
27.0
(80.6)
26.8
(80.2)
25.9
(78.6)
25.2
(77.4)
25.4
(77.7)
25.8
(78.4)
26.8
(80.2)
27.6
(81.7)
28.0
(82.4)
26.7
(80.1)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 23.4
(74.1)
23.3
(73.9)
23.3
(73.9)
23.5
(74.3)
23.7
(74.7)
23.0
(73.4)
22.3
(72.1)
22.4
(72.3)
22.5
(72.5)
23.1
(73.6)
23.5
(74.3)
23.6
(74.5)
23.1
(73.6)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 265
(10.4)
264
(10.4)
291
(11.5)
333
(13.1)
224
(8.8)
110
(4.3)
80
(3.1)
54
(2.1)
45
(1.8)
55
(2.2)
109
(4.3)
191
(7.5)
2,021
(79.5)
Source: [15]
Climate data for Goroka (Köppen Am/Af/Cfb)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 25.5
(77.9)
25.5
(77.9)
25.1
(77.2)
25.2
(77.4)
25.3
(77.5)
24.4
(75.9)
24.0
(75.2)
24.5
(76.1)
24.9
(76.8)
25.3
(77.5)
25.9
(78.6)
25.4
(77.7)
25.1
(77.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 19.9
(67.8)
20.1
(68.2)
19.8
(67.6)
19.8
(67.6)
19.7
(67.5)
18.8
(65.8)
18.6
(65.5)
18.9
(66.0)
19.1
(66.4)
19.4
(66.9)
19.7
(67.5)
19.8
(67.6)
19.5
(67.0)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 14.4
(57.9)
14.7
(58.5)
14.6
(58.3)
14.4
(57.9)
14.2
(57.6)
13.3
(55.9)
13.2
(55.8)
13.3
(55.9)
13.4
(56.1)
13.5
(56.3)
13.5
(56.3)
14.3
(57.7)
13.9
(57.0)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 229
(9.0)
249
(9.8)
232
(9.1)
181
(7.1)
117
(4.6)
62
(2.4)
55
(2.2)
65
(2.6)
99
(3.9)
159
(6.3)
163
(6.4)
229
(9.0)
1,840
(72.4)
Source: [16]
Climate data for Madang (Köppen Af)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 33.2
(91.8)
33.3
(91.9)
33.3
(91.9)
33.7
(92.7)
32.2
(90.0)
32.2
(90.0)
31.5
(88.7)
31.7
(89.1)
33.4
(92.1)
31.7
(89.1)
32.5
(90.5)
33.6
(92.5)
33.7
(92.7)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 30.8
(87.4)
30.6
(87.1)
30.6
(87.1)
30.6
(87.1)
30.7
(87.3)
30.4
(86.7)
30.2
(86.4)
30.2
(86.4)
30.5
(86.9)
30.9
(87.6)
31.2
(88.2)
30.9
(87.6)
30.6
(87.1)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 23.9
(75.0)
23.8
(74.8)
23.9
(75.0)
23.8
(74.8)
23.9
(75.0)
23.7
(74.7)
23.4
(74.1)
23.7
(74.7)
23.6
(74.5)
23.8
(74.8)
23.9
(75.0)
23.9
(75.0)
23.8
(74.8)
Record low °C (°F) 21.0
(69.8)
20.7
(69.3)
20.8
(69.4)
21.1
(70.0)
20.1
(68.2)
19.9
(67.8)
20.0
(68.0)
18.9
(66.0)
20.8
(69.4)
20.3
(68.5)
20.0
(68.0)
19.4
(66.9)
18.9
(66.0)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 343.8
(13.54)
292.0
(11.50)
329.8
(12.98)
389.4
(15.33)
343.4
(13.52)
186.4
(7.34)
144.2
(5.68)
93.8
(3.69)
82.6
(3.25)
239.2
(9.42)
280.2
(11.03)
382.0
(15.04)
3,106.8
(122.31)
Average rainy days 23 21 23 23 21 18 15 12 11 15 19 23 224
Average relative humidity (%) 85 85 85 85 85 84 84 82 83 83 84 84 84
Mean monthly sunshine hours 160 140 144 162 193 195 198 210 227 210 185 160 2,184
Source 1: World Meteorological Organisation[17]
Source 2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (extremes, humidity and sun)[18][19]

Human geography[edit]

Papua New Guinea's cities, main towns, selected smaller centres, rivers and high peaks

Maritime claims: These are measured from claimed archipelagic baselines.

  • Continental shelf:
200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
  • Exclusive economic zone:
2,402,288 km2 (927,529 sq mi). 200 mi (320 km) nautical miles
  • Territorial sea:
12 nautical miles (22 km)

Land use[edit]

Natural resources: gold, copper, silver, natural gas, timber, oil, fisheries

Land use:

  • arable land: 0.49%
  • permanent crops: 1.4%
  • other (forests, swamplands, etc.): 98.11% (2005 estimate)

Environmental issues[edit]

The rainforest is subject to deforestation as a result of growing commercial demand for tropical timber; forest clearance, especially in coastal areas, for plantations; pollution from mining projects. If the trend continues, more than half the forest that existed when Papua New Guinea became independent from Australia in 1975 will be gone by 2021.[20]

Environment - international agreements[edit]

signed, but not ratified[edit]

  • Antarctic-Environmental Protocol

signed and ratified[edit]

Extreme points[edit]

Extreme points[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Island Countries Of The World". WorldAtlas.com. Archived from the original on 2017-12-07. Retrieved 2019-08-10.
  2. ^ "Admiralty Islands lowland rain forests". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund.
  3. ^ Murray, N.J.; Phinn, S.R.; DeWitt, M.; Ferrari, R.; Johnston, R.; Lyons, M.B.; Clinton, N.; Thau, D.; Fuller, R.A. (2019). "The global distribution and trajectory of tidal flats". Nature. 565 (7738): 222–225. doi:10.1038/s41586-018-0805-8. PMID 30568300. S2CID 56481043.
  4. ^ "Papua New Guinea - Climate". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2021-10-08.
  5. ^ https://openresearch-repository.anu.edu.au/bitstream/1885/132966/1/BG_04.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  6. ^ Michael, Patrick S. (2019-12-30). "Current Evidence and Future Projections: a Comparative Analysis of the Impacts of Climate Change on Critical Climate-Sensitive Areas of Papua New Guinea". SAINS TANAH - Journal of Soil Science and Agroclimatology. 16 (2): 229–253. doi:10.20961/stjssa.v16i2.35712. ISSN 2356-1424. S2CID 213917240.
  7. ^ Crate, Susan A.; Nuttall, Mark (2016-06-03). "Global averages, local extremes: the subtleties and complexities of climate change in Papua New Guinea". Anthropology and Climate Change: From Encounters to Actions. Routledge. pp. 197–208. ISBN 978-1-315-43476-6.
  8. ^ "World Weather Information Service — Port Moresby". World Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 6 February 2016. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
  9. ^ "Klimatafel von Port Moresby (Flugh.) / Papua-Neuguinea" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961-1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 August 2019. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
  10. ^ "Station 92035 Port Moresby W.O." Global station data 1961–1990—Sunshine Duration. Deutscher Wetterdienst. Archived from the original on 2017-10-17. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
  11. ^ Climate of Mount Hagen
  12. ^ "World Weather Information Service — Lae City". World Meteorological Organisation. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
  13. ^ "Climate: Wewak – Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 2013-12-18.
  14. ^ "Wewak Climate and Weather Averages, Papua New Guinea". Weather2Travel. Retrieved 2013-12-18.
  15. ^ "Daru Climate (Papua New Guinea)". climate-data.org.
  16. ^ "Goroka climate: Average Temperature, weather by month, Goroka weather averages - Climate-Data.org". en.climate-data.org.
  17. ^ "World Weather Information Service — Madang". World Meteorological Organisation. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
  18. ^ "Klimatafel von Madang / Papua-Neuguinea" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961-1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
  19. ^ "Station 92014 Madang W.O". Global station data 1961–1990—Sunshine Duration. Deutscher Wetterdienst. Archived from the original on 2017-10-17. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
  20. ^ University of Papua New Guinea The State of the Forests in Papua New Guinea Archived 2008-07-19 at the Wayback Machine

6°00′S 147°00′E / 6.000°S 147.000°E / -6.000; 147.000